The need for protection of rights of children

family18

Childhood is a magical time. Full of discovery and innocence, it begins from the time one is born. Even before we learn to walk, we begin our observational journey that marks our initiation into the happenings of the world. >

The rights of children are fundamental in nature. They are associated by birth and continue to be applicable till one moves on into adulthood at the age of eighteen. Rights associated with children aren’t discriminating by nature. They are valid for all children across race, colour, gender, financial condition or location based factors. Equality for all forms the underlying theme here and the aim is to work towards it till every child in this world happens to be treated equally, sans discrimination in any form or manner.

The essential message is equality of opportunity. Girls should be given the same opportunities as boys.

Children are often considered to be the key holders to the future of mankind. It is they that will go onto ensure how the world shapes up a few decades from now. This is why; it becomes unequivocally critical that all children be exposed to an environment full of happiness and love during their formative years. Learning should come at a pace where they are comfortable assimilating it and adulthood must not be forced upon them in any way whatsoever.

Unfortunately, millions of babies die each year, some even before they are born. Gender based pregnancy terminations remain a grim reality and is practiced in many a developing country, India included. The girl child continues to be discriminated against, with most girls receiving significantly lower opportunities for personal and educational growth. Child employment rates too have continued to rise at an alarming rate with emerging nations like China, the Indian sub-continent and others being guilty of such criminal acts.

Essentially every child on this planet is has the right to receive all the help they need to survive. This means that they must be provided with a certain, minimum standard of assistance in terms of nutritional food, health care access, a name and a place where they belong and can call it their home. They have a right to appropriate educational support, leisure activities, recreational facilities and care.

Children need to be protected from exploitative elements, abusive elders and general neglect. There is great need to take care of the young lives around us, for the world is fast turning into a dangerous place. If at all, we are to ensure the future of the human race, it is time; we start to work towards ensuring the safety and progress of our youngest participants.

About The Author CRY UK works with an influential way to protect and promote the rights of children in India. Let us unite together and eradicate the fallacy for underprivileged.

Every Child Needs To Be Heard…

family4

Although India is known to be a culturally diverse country, there are many issues which have not yet reached a resolution. Some of these include poverty and illiteracy, two of the main causes for many other plaguing issues. As a result of these two problems, many young and innocent children suffer. They are not only denied the warmth and love every child deserves but also grow up with the impression that they did not deserve the right to be treated like a human being.

They grow up in fear and are in no position to defend themselves as a result of their economic plight. Furthermore, their parents are not even financially equipped to send them to schools to receive a basic education. They are forced into labour and their growth is hampered for the rest of their lives. They perform menial jobs, often involving long hours only to be rewarded with very meagre amounts of compensation. These children are given no freedom of their own and their fundamental rights of survival literally become non-existent. They are deprived of a basic education and the bare requirements of a healthy childhood.

Child Rights are those inherent rights which are guaranteed to every human being regardless to his caste, creed, sex, status of colour. It ensures equality of opportunity and covers multiple needs and issues of the child. It is through the Indian Constitution that many rights of a child are guaranteed. Some of the basic rights of children include; the right to education, expression, information, nutrition, health and care, protection from abuse, protection from exploitation, from neglect, to development, recreation, name and nationality and survival.

In India, however many of these children are denied their basic rights. This is often because of the economic plight that they are in and the inability to help themselves. One of the root factors for this is poverty. It is because they are born into poverty that they do not have the knowledge or ability to proclaim these rights. The parents, too who are struggling cannot raise this issue as the demands for survival are very high for them.

This leads to unhappy childhoods and lives filled with misery where their lives are aimed at helping their parents bring money back home or to find a meagre meal to survive. Furthermore, they are exploited and abused at all levels.

Many non-profits are continuously fighting to protect their rights through various programs and interventions. Through various donations and other schemes, the lives of many youngsters who have been denied their rights are benefitting. These organisations in turn collaborate with the Government at different levels to help protect youngsters from any form of exploitation. However, laws and practices can only become beneficial once the entire community work together towards this issue.

Will Baby Boomers Bankrupt Our Social Security System

family4

Expert Reveals the Realities We’re Afraid to Think About

Los Angeles, CA- One baby boomer turns 50 every nine seconds. This year, boomers began reaching the traditional retirement age of 65 at the rate of about one every eight seconds! With so many retirees collecting social security, the program will soon be broke. Boomers are expected to live longer than any other generation of Americans, and by 2030, when the first baby boomers reach 84, the number of Americans over 65 will have grown to 69 million. That means 20% of the population will be over 50.

Estate planning expert Kris Miller, “The Money Maestro,” specializes in helping people build and protect their retirement assets so their money will last as long as they do. With social security on such shaky ground, all of us need to plan how we’ll fund our retirement without help from Uncle Sam. Kris Miller helps people of all ages plan for their retirement with complete estate packages – including newlyweds, GenXers, the Sandwich Generation, Baby Boomers, and retirees. A Certified Senior Advisor, Kris encourages people to plan ahead for retirement. In fact, Kris recently published her first book on the topic: Ready For PREtirement? Everything You Need to Know NOW So Your Money Is There When You Need It.

Invite Miller to answer:

How can people manipulate their IRAs and recoup their losses? Why are people so afraid to talk to a financial advisor? Is it too late for someone near retirement to repair their savings? Does health insurance cover nursing home care? Why do so many people lose their inheritance to lawyers and court fees?

CREDENTIALS: Kris Miller is a Certified Senior Advisor, Chartered Federal Employee Specialist, Legal Document Assistant, and IRA Specialist. She has been in practice over 20 years and has counseled over 5,000 families. Her book Ready For PREtirement reveals how to make sure your money is there when you need it. For the past 20 years, my clients have relied on me as a PREtirement and living trust expert. I’ve become known as The Money Maestro, because I help harmonize my clients’ finances. Whether you’re preparing for retirement, on the verge of retiring, or already retired – please call me – I’d love to offer my expertise and guidance to ensure your financial house is in order. Together, let’s protect your Golden Years.

AVAILABILITY: California, nationwide by arrangement, and via telephone (available as a last-minute guest)

CONTACT: Kris Miller, (951) 850-5307 (CA); ; www.ReadyforPREtirement.com

Kris Miller, Estate Planning Expert and Safe Money Strategist, will guide you on how you can successfully prepare your retirement plan. For more information on how Kris can help you, call (951) 926-4158 or email and see her #1 Best Selling book at www.ReadyforPREtirement.com

Cisco 640-760 Training Study Guide

family6

Exam
Exam Number/Code : 640-760
Exam Name : Supporting Cisco Service Provider IP NGN Operations (SSPO)
Questions and Answers : 71 Q&As
Update Time: 2011-05-08

You can be sure of getting the most detailed and accurate Cisco 640-760 Certification Training Tools from us. Our 640-760 Certification are economical and comprehensive. Our Training Tools are updated regularly with the changing Certification Exam Objectives to give you the latest Certification Exam Study Material.

To all the candidates buy the Cisco 70-642 exam Q&As, we provide track service, when you buy the Q&As within one year. you can enjoy free updates. If in this period, the certified test center change the Cisco Q&As, we will send the latest version to you in time. We provide package contains two version, one is PDF (Printable Version), and the other is Self Test Software. We are the only vendor who offers two versions available without charge any other fees.

Certkey Cisco 640-760 dumps help materialize your dreams of success with minimum effort.At Certkey Cisco 640-760 training study guide we provide you with 640-760 Questions and Answers, 640-760 Practice Testing Software, Study Guide,Preparation Labs and Audio Learnings.

In order to offer the customers the latest edition of Cisco 640-760 exam, Certkey staffs make great efforCisco to make sure that they are always in-touch with the changes in the exam. It is certain that the Certkey training materials are the most actual information available for you.Certkey offers free demo for 640-760 exam. You can check out the interface, question quality and usability of our practice exams before you decide to buy it. We are the only one site can offer demo for almost all producCisco.

Taking a Cisco 640-760 online test gives you the direction you need to choose Cisco 640-760 practice exams in the future. What better way to prepare for an exam than with a Cisco 640-760 practice exam? Cisco 640-760 simulation questions are provided to give you just the skills you need to apply your learning even after you have passed the exam.

There are four methods that Certkey.com uses to educate the masses in Information Technology. Using any combination of these steps will absolutely ensure success on test day. Our most popular Certkey.com 640-760 training product is the 640-760 practice questions and answers. Use the 640-760 Certkey.com exam tools to prepare for your upcoming exam and pass it with confidence!

Single Parent Dating Selecting The Right Site Is The Key

family17

There are many dating sites created exclusively for single parents. Theses single parent dating sites are popular with single parent. These sites cater to the specific needs of single mothers and fathers. They would meet and interact with other people who are sailing in the same boat. They would share each other’s perception on issues related to raising children single handedly without the help of spouse. It is well-known fact that dating for single parent is not very easy and the reason is very simple to understand. One has to take time out of the responsibilities that as a single parent one has to perform.

There is no denying the fact that single parent dating sites are all over the place. But now the question is how to select the right one. The best way is to read the dating websites reviews and then form an opinion. The reviews would guide a person in choosing the right site because the information one requires for assessing something would be provided by those reviews. Once the information is readily available, it becomes very easy for a person to judge the credibility and acceptability of a site. While providing information to the site, take all necessary precautions to ensure that the information provided by you is not misused.

Life is very difficult for a single parent. One has to do what in normal circumstance two individuals do collectively for their child. A single parent has to look after the personal needs of the child as well as his/ her academic needs. The single parent is heavily with responsibility and there is no one around with whom one can share one’s problem or discuss ways and means of coping with the stress that problem generates. A child’s needs are many. He/she depends on his friends and teachers for the fulfillment of his/her needs, but there are some needs which can be fulfilled at home only.

Here are few tips for single parent dating. Choosing the right person is not as easy as it sounds. One has to be very cautious while sharing one’s problems. It is better if a person whose child also goes the same school or class is chosen for sharing of perceptions. Two individuals whose children go to the same school or class will be on the same wavelength. It is better if you can shade your past and don’t let it cast its shadow on the new relationship you are going to have. Learn from your past mistakes and act accordingly when you meet someone. By the way casual dating sites are also there.

single parent dating – Dating as a Single Parent – LoveStore4u.com. Being a single parent can be a trying task without the support of a spouse or significant other to back you up, a give you a leg up, in times of emotional strife or need.

Mother Of Pearl Is Also Known As Nacre

family9

Mother of pearl and ownership of one or several pearl farms has found a lucrative market in the public. Pearls are usually used in creating necklaces, rings, bracelets and even in the creation of various sets of jewelry. It has become a status symbol not just to the rich but also to people from all walks of life so much that the market for fake reproductions of the mother of pearl has found its own patronage. With its increasing popularity, it is bound to create questions to interested investors such that a lot of people have become intrigued on how it is made or created by nature.

How it is formed

Mother of pearl is also known as nacre. It is a composite of both organic and inorganic chemicals created by nature. The chemical make-up of this composite is hexagonal platelets of aragonite. The dimension of this platelet is 10-20 micrometers with a thickness of 0.5 micrometer. In between the layers of these platelets is a thin organic matrix made up of elastic biopolymers. This unique combination makes the mother of pearls resilient and strong. When this combination is multiplied, meaning the dimensions of the composite grows bigger, the toughness increases as well.

Mother of pearls are created by the mollusc species from their epithelial cells from the mantle tissue. Over time, the molluscs continually deposit layers on the inner surface of the shell. This action presents two purposes. One, as defense against parasites which could damage the detritus and two, it smoothens the shell of the mollusc itself.

The process of encystation occurs when the molluscs get invaded by a parasitic organism or in cases when they are invaded by a foreign object which the mollusc cannot spew out. What happens is that the parasite or foreign object gets enclosed in the layers of the mother of pearl that the mollusc continually deposits. This continuous process of depositing several layers eventually creates the pearls that are marketed by jewelers to the public. Until the mother of pearl is taken from the mollusc, the pearl continues to grow bigger.

The inner layer is unique because of its iridescence. A characteristic that jewelers and the public alike find very attractive. The same characteristic is primarily due to the thickness of the platelets comparable in size to the visible light’s wavelength, which translates to about 0.5 micrometers. This produces a play of light due to the different wavelengths which occurs when light is allowed to pass through it from different angles.

Major sources of mother of pearl finds come from the freshwater mussels. This species normally live in the waters of Asia, Europe and the United States. The same mother of pearls can also be seen in pearl oysters of warm tropical waters as well as the abalone of the

Why preschools play a vital role in your kids education

family16

Preschool can dramatically change the quality of adult life. Theres been considerable research in this area and most of the findings had concluded that quality preschool programs affect children positively. The initial years of a child’s life are a crucial development period. Its the time when 75% of your childs brain growth takes place. Kids who are nurtured and stimulated during these years are much more prepared for kindergarten and are more likely to have social skills needed to have a successful kindergarten experience.

Besides producing positive effects on childrens learning and development, high-quality preschool education also has effects on the moral and ethical behavior of kids. Its been seen that children who receive high-quality preschool education are less likely to get involved in crime, substance abuse and other illegal activities than their peers who did not attend any preschool. Thus, preschool education holds an important place when you think about proper and wholesome kids education.

Having said that, It is also important to select a right preschool for your kid. Research suggests that when children are exposed to a learning environment that coincides with their personality, temperament and traits. The reason being children are born with their natural style of interacting with or reacting to people, places, and things. And if they are put in right learning places then the result is increased self-confidence, a positive attitude towards learning, enhanced creativity and a wholesome development.

Besides sending your child to preschool to ensure that he/she has a wholesome development, It is also important for you as a parent to spend devoted time with your kid. Whether its playing in the yard with your kid or while setting the breakfast table and trying to wrangle information about his/her day, or may be telling bed time stories, you must interact with the kids. Also its important for you to participate in different preschool programs so that your kids first educational experience is a happy and effective one. Because a high quality preschool program involves parents, children and teacher where they all contribute, and actively participate to create a learning environment that is full of growth.

Author’s Bio: Roser Brown is a self-published author of many articles on child education. In this article he writes on the crucial role that preschool plays in kids education

Baby Milestones Crawling

family13

Having a baby can be one of the most exciting, and not to mention confusing, things that you will ever experience in your life. There are hundreds of things to observe and keep track of in your babies development such as their first words, sitting up on their own, attempts at independent walking, etc. These are what pediatricians call milestones. Milestones are very important and reaching them helps evaluate how far ahead your baby is in its development. Also, they allow doctors to measure your babys progress and suggest new activities to stimulate their development. Crawling is one of the very important milestones in your babys life for a multitude of reasons.

WHAT CRAWLING IS
For your baby to start crawling means a few things. First of all, it means your baby has the vital brain area developed that is responsible for coordinated movement and balance. It also means your baby has strong enough arms to support his entire upper body a very important sign. When your baby first attempts to crawl, he will start by putting weight on his hands and knees, and then slowly start to add motion. At the same time, your baby will be strengthening his muscles for future use. Babies like to crawl because it is their first sense of freedom and mobility. No longer are they constrained by their crib walls or playpen gate. They are now free to explore their surroundings without being constricted.

WHEN IT DEVELOPS
For most babies, crawling develops shortly after they learn to sit up on their own without parental assistance. This is usually six to seven months after birth, but can be as early as four months and as late as ten months for some babies. In recent years, babies have been learning to crawl later and later, and many babies have opted to skip the crawling stage altogether.

Dont be alarmed if your baby opts to use a different form of locomotion, such as scooting across the floor or rolling around. A few rare babies even go straight from sitting up to walking. You know your baby will be ready for crawling when he can sit up well without support. After this, you will notice that you baby tries to push off with his knees and will attempt to crawl. It may take a few weeks, but eventually your baby will be able to master going from the sitting position to the crawling position.

This truly is a fun time for parents to watch and observe. Dont stress out too much about initial unsuccessful attempts; just remember to clear the floor from all small and big things your baby might be able to reach in his newfound freedom. Take a lot of pictures and enjoy!

Get Pregnant Holistically

family13

First of all, you have to remember that our body is the most sophisticated mechanism ever and if you have failed to get pregnant, it a sign that your body is not ready to carry a child. Unfortunatey, conventional fertility programs may cause a lot of harm and pain. As such, natural and holistics methods are always superior.

Your health is the most important determinant whether you conceive or not. Here are some health tips on how to get pregnant naturally:

1. Look at what you are eating – Start eating nutritious, well-balanced home-cooked meals. Eat organic, if possible, and avoid MSG.

2. Watch your weight. If you are too thin or too fat, you will reduce your chances of getting pregnant. Get into an exercise regime and spend some time outdoors.

3. Smoking and drinking seriously affects fertility. If your body is full of toxins, it cannot carry a child. Even coffee should be cut down.

4. Eliminate the use of chemicals where possible. This includes the use of makeup, deodorants, bleaches, insecticides, etc. Some of these chemicals seriously affect fertility.

5. Slow down – stress doesn’t help. Try to relax by taking hot baths, doing yoga or meditating. A holiday is always beneficial for women trying to conceive.

6. Love your partner – don’t make sex a chore. Spend quality time together and be there for each other.

7. Learn how your body works best. Certain positions and frequency of sex enhances the possibility of conception. Also, you should learn to observe your ovulation cycle.

The tips above will help you to conceive naturally and also improve your health and relationship with your partner. Whatever you do, do not give up! May you be blessed with a child soon!

Childrens Fancy Dress Princess Or Superman

family15

Childrens Fancy Dress

Fancy dress is great for adults because they have an excuse to dress up and be silly, they dont have to be the sensible and respectful adult they are on a daily basis, for one night they can dress up and be anyone they want to be. Fortunately for kids they can dress up, be silly, and play make believe all day everyday! Fancy dress for kids isnt limited to fancy dress parties or Halloween; its for everyday use, for when your friends come round to play, for going to the supermarket because mummy has run out of cheese, or simply for watching the Disney channel before bath time. Any time of day and any day of the week is perfect for dressing up when you are a child.

With so many opportunities for dress up there are many fancy dress costumes to choose from for kids, here is a look at a few of them.

Fancy Dress Princesses a common concept amongst little girls is that they love Princesses and fairytales. They love the Princess pretty dress, their beautiful hair, and the way they dance and sing, they love everything about them and want to be just like them. There are many costumes along these lines such as Belle, Cinderella, Sleeping Beauty, or a generic Princess or Fairy costume. An idea to think about is a 2 in 1 costume, you can buy a costume that is reversible, for example a dress that is Snow White on one side, turn it inside out and its Belle – perfect for your little princess.

Fancy Dress Super Heroes now you may think your little boy is a hero anyway but he will want to dress up and prove it to the world! Usually little boys love to dress up as their favourite action man or super hero whether it is Superman flying around from one sofa to the other, or Spiderman climbing up the walls, or maybe its the Incredible Hulk (hopefully he wont rip the costume apart playing this one) but whichever your childs fantasy hero is there is a costume to choose from.

Just Like Mum or Dad are you a nurse, a policeman, a doctor, or something along those lines? Kids copy everything you do and say, they always want to be like and dress up like their mummy or daddy. There are many kiddie costumes of uniforms such as the fireman, the S.W.A.T policeman, the ER doctor, the paramedic, and many more. Maybe you have something from work you can tailor to fit your child, or maybe you need to buy the costume but they can borrow a few items that fit well to finish off the outfit, have a look around and see what you can come up with.

Go the Distance with Online Distance Education Courses

family21

Today the distance between the Southern tip of Australia and the Northern-most parts of Norway is no longer unbridgeable. The Internet has revolutionized the way the world communicates, does business, and even coordinates classes albeit in different parts of the world but all at the same time! Distance education by means of online learning is the latest tool by which both children and adults in the remotest village in Africa or Asia can hope to receive education.

For the side providing education, distance or online learning is not only cheap and convenient but also prevents wasting time on transport and other resources. And for the side of the receiving end, it is nothing short of a blessing. Education should be a universal birthright for those seeking it and those who deserve it. Online or distance learning systems have lent further impetus to that. The study materials in distance or online learning courses are usually fresh and the latest. Thankfully, one can say goodbye to centuries of old thoughts rusting in tattered books in libraries which are mostly inaccessible.

Additionally, online learning helps one get the latest resources and references on any subject. And of course there is no limit to browsing as the Internet is filled with infinite number of resources on any particular subject. Online distance learning also lets one take courses at ones own pace. Gone are the days when one had to sink into the back-benches feeling left out from whats being taught in class. Study at will, study at leisure its all made possible by online distance education.

Virtual classrooms help students interact directly with their teachers and other fellow students without having to move an inch from their sofas! So one can live in Sydney but study at Berlin all with the help of online distance learning courses! Although this system of education is absolutely useful, still one disadvantage of this system might be that it depends heavily on connectivity. Students in places with very low bandwidth can find it extremely annoying to wait while their page takes forever to load. But thanks to latest Internet technology these problems are on the verge of being ironed out.

Now with real-time technologies, students and teachers can send and receive immediate feedback on courses and exams. The 3G spectrum in Internet telephony has made live video chats possible in many countries. The rest of the world, too, will be able to avail of the advantage of live video interaction during online distance learning classrooms in another two to three years.

Reasons Your Children Should Learn To Do Puzzles

family2

Every parent strives to provide the best environment for their children so they grow up to become educated, intelligent adults. The things you teach your children at a very young age have the most impact on their learning abilities for the rest of their lives.

In addition to letting your children play outside, read and socialize with other children, there are many things you can do to help your children develop the skills they need to execute simple actions (like hand-eye coordination and motor skills).

Puzzles are a great way to stimulate a childs brain and help develop some of the most important skills theyll need for the future not to mention, theyre a lot of fun.

Below, weve listed 3 reasons why every parent should teach their children how to complete puzzles.

1.Hand-Eye Coordination. As we mentioned briefly above, many puzzles aid in developing a childs hand eye coordination. Its very difficult for a young child to pick up a piece of a puzzle, turn it in the proper direction and place it where it belongs in the puzzle. The more they practice, the more it becomes second nature to them and, before you know it, your childs hand-eye coordination is functioning fully. Start with shape puzzles (the ones where the child has to put the shapes into the corresponding holes) at a very young age and work your way up to harder levels as they progress.

2.Problem Solving Skills. Puzzles are a great way to teach children how to overcome problems. Many children become frustrated when trying to complete puzzles but the more they do them, the less frustrated they become. The child begins to realize the importance of working through their difficulties and learns how to cope with frustration. When theyve completed the puzzle, theyll be happy and will likely want to try another. This is an invaluable lesson to children.

3.Memory Skills. Puzzles are a proven method of stimulating a childs memory. There are many types of puzzles designed specifically to help develop a childs memory. If you cant find the right type of puzzle at the store, there are simple ways to teach your children how to remember. Grab a deck of cards and sort through them until you find 5 pairs. Flip the 10 cards over and ask your child to pick up the cards one at a time to try and find a pair. If they flip over two cards and that dont match, they must flip the cards facedown and try again. This will help immensely when it comes to your childs memory skills. As it becomes easier, keep adding more cards to make it difficult and keep them challenged.

Puzzles are an easy, fun and affordable way to keep your children occupied and learning at the same time. We hope you enjoy the information weve provided!

Understanding the Condition of Underprivileged Children in Developing Countries

family15

It is a fact recognized by the government and the civil society that thousands of children are routinely denied their basic human rights in developing and economically backward countries such as Bangladesh. There are many schemes that promise to protect the rights of the child but they are all affected by the acute difficulty that arises in their proper implementation.

Millions of children remain deprived of education and are forced to work long hours under extremely perilous conditions. Many of them languish in inhuman conditions in slums and squatter camps without proper hygiene or sanitation facilities.

Children are the future of any civilized society and it is necessary to ensure their physical and mental well being to ensure a healthy and intellectual society in the future. Social organizations have begun to recognize the lack of application shown by government run organizations in resolving these issues and are therefore taking major initiatives to resolve the problem at grassroots level.

Several programs have been chalked out to create the right atmosphere for the socio-physiological development of women and children so that they can enjoy a life that is qualitatively better than the present filthy conditions that they live in.

Bangladesh receives more than a million rural migrants every year. Most of them are forced to live in conditions that are completely unfit for humans. Very often, young children including minors of the family are forced to take up work for sheer survival. Infants are therefore left unattended or in the custody of their siblings. This is at the cost of their welfare and schooling. Most of the children living under such conditions lose their childhood rights, are completely neglected and left to live off the streets.

Most of the times mothers are left to raise the children themselves singlehandedly without the support of male members. In such instances, they have to take care of the child and also carry out their daily work to be able to survive.

Non-government organizations have done commendable work over the past couple of years in understanding the gravity of the situation and the impact that it can have on the future of the country and its economy.

Welcome to Touching Souls International – New York based nonprofit organization actively involved in charity work for the past two decades. Our mission is to provide charity for children, assistance in health, education and environment for the needy, economically disadvantaged people of the third world countries. Donate now using our online donation.

Babies And Circadian Rhythms

family19

If you are expecting your first baby, it is important to understand what his/her sleep patterns will be and how they are affected by day and night. As babies age, they need less sleep throughout the day. The times where a baby is alert usually only lasts for two or three hours, at one month of age they sleep for over fifteen hours. By the time they reach six months of age, they tend to sleep between twelve and fourteen hours a day.

When children are born they have no natural circadian rhythm. Instead their sleep patterns are based on smaller ‘ultradian’ cycles which will repeat a number of times within a day. When a new born is just 2-8 weeks old, it will sleep for around four hours then awaken for thirty minutes, although this pattern is in constant flux.

Many new parents find their baby’s sleep patterns difficult, but the last thing you want to do is try and change them. The schedule of sleep that your baby is on isn’t up to you. By trying to change his schedule to fit your needs, you may cause his pattern to become even more inconsistent and cause him to take longer to develop the twenty-four-hour circadian rhythm. A circadian rhythm is one that consists of being awake for twelve hours and then sleeping for twelve hours.

Scientists have recently discovered a natural ingredient of breast milk which makes it different from formula. Interestingly breast milk created in the daytime contains less sleep encouraging nucleotides than that created at night. Nucleotides within the breast milk increased when nighttime approached showing how they follow their own circadian rhythm.

It is important that during the day you allow your home to be at a normal noise level and that you engage your baby with eye contact, which will help them get to know what makes daytime different from the night. Eye contact is very exciting for babies. Keeping eye contact with your baby will have a physical effect, blood pressure will rise, the heart will beat faster and your baby will awaken fully.

As night time approaches, limit the amount of stimulation give the the baby. It is also helpful to initiate a series of pre-bedtime rituals to let your baby know it is almost time for sleep. When your child reaches three months old, he should be able to turn two sleep cycles into one period of unbroken sleep. You may run into the issue that the cycle doesn’t happen at night. Night sleep gets much more routine once the baby turns four months old.

Major Study Shows Dissatisfaction Following Robotic Prostatectomy

family11

A major study of patient satisfaction and regret following open prostatectomy and robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy provides some important lessons for surgeons.*
The research, recently published in the European Journal of Urology, shows 19 per cent of patients regretted their treatment choice and patients who had robot-assisted surgery were most likely to be dissatisfied.

The authors suggest the regret is “possibly because of higher expectation of an ‘innovative procedure'”.

Their conclusion is one for all urological surgeons to note. “We suggest that urologists carefully portray the risks and benefits of new technologies during preoperative counselling to minimise regret and maximise satisfaction.”

In recent years, the treatment of prostate cancer has been a rapidly developing field, providing patients with a wide range of different choices.

Brachytherapy and HIFU offer non-surgical options and for those who want surgery, there are open, laparoscopic and nerve-sparring options, depending upon your diagnosis and treatment provider.

At the same time, patients are becoming increasingly proactive, using the internet to research and consider the different options themselves, as well as the traditional consultation with the urologist.

Increased choice is without doubt a positive benefit for patients, but as urology centres – both private and NHS – seek to attract patients, we have a responsibility to carefully counsel them about the advantages and disadvantages of treatments.
There is a distinctive risk when a procedure is perceived to be new and especially “innovative”. The media will always be interested in the next “pioneering operation”, particularly one which involves robots.

A newspaper article will tend to portray the new procedure as an immaculate solution, which corrects all the risk and disadvantages of other procedures.
As surgeons, we have a responsibility to provide patients with a more sober and informative picture, acknowledging limitations as well as benefits.

The patient satisfaction study was based on the responses of 400 men who had undergone retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) or robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy between 2000 and 2007 in the US.

The report’s authors also examined patients urinary domain scores, hormonal domain scores and found scores were independently linked with regret.

It is still early days for robotic surgery in the UK. In prostate cancer surgery, there are currently six Da Vinci robotic machines in the UK, compared with 350 in America.

There is no current evidence that robotic surgery provides better outcomes for patients, in terms of urinary symptoms, post operative sexual function or post-operative risks and complications.
It seems certain that robotic surgery will increase within the UK during the next decade, with NHS and private centres purchasing the Da Vinci machines.

This will provide even more choice for patients, which is in principle, a positive development.

It is however vital that patients are given accurate and comprehensive information to enable them to make an informed choice, rather than simply being over-sold a new product.